Jag medverkade nyligen i en diskussion rörande mikrofinans nytta i relation till de hundratals miljoner som Svenska Kyrkan och ett flertal församlingar satsat och som tyvärr gått upp i rök. Min kommentar hörs mot slutet av inlägget, de sista 4 minutrarna. Innan mitt inlägg kommenterar Mikael Färnbo rörande den granskning de gjort av kyrkans investeringar följt av ett försvar från Lars-Olof Hellgren rörande satsningarna som gjort. Min avslutande poäng är att nyttan av mikrofinans är begränsad, och varför ser man inte till hur t.ex. Sverige industrialiserades under 1800-talets slut och in på 1900-talet. Det var inte mikrofinans som skapade Sveriges storbolag utan det var medvetna satsningar på att skapa storföretag, som leddes av en kompetent ledning. Faktum är att basal utbildning, såsom att kunna läsa och skriva, var det första man satsade stort på i Sverige vid 1800-talets mitt. Frågan man bör ställa sig är alltså om inte man borde kopiera det framgångsrika receptet och pröva det istället på fler platser i världen. Tryck här för att höra inslaget från Ekots Studio 1.
Published in Faedrelandsvennen 12 july 2018
Strømme Foundation changes its strategy from a focus on microcredit to a focus on financing small and mediums sized companies, in line with what my own research and experience indicates to be a better path towards prosperous economic development. I concur with this move and look forward to seeing the results from this change, and encourage more organizations and investors to follow this path. This is not to say that microfinance is not helping poor people. Someone said to me: “These microloans do help a little especially when it comes to women who can send their kids to school. Put a metal roof with monies earned from the small businesses they setup.” I completely agree, but by focusing on small and medium sized companies, we can help create even more jobs through scaling businesses led by competent managers. It is simply difficult to scale a small microentrepreneur with very limited personal capacity to lead a larger business. I simply suggest that there are other means which we also need to explore. Financing of SME´s has until recently been a forgotten area of focus, and more and more investors are shifting towards this group as well for more impact.
For Norwegian version, see this link: 2018-07-12_Faedrelandsvennen
For English transaltion, see this link: Strømme Foundation puts microfinance on the shelf.
I senaste numret av entré skriver journalisten Maria Linde om min avhandling samt om vårt jobb med MTI Investment AS – det nordiska investmentbolaget som investerar i växande små och medelstora företag i Östra Afrika.
För att ladda ner delen som har med min forskning att göra klicka här:
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On June 20 2016 I defended successfully my thesis at the University of Agder in Norway. Since then I am affiliated with the Stockholm School of Economics, where I do research, supervise students and teach in courses related to entrepreneurship both in the Executive MBA program and also in the Master program. I also hold a position as an Associate Professor at Hauge School of Management at NLA Høgskole in Oslo, currently teaching a bachelor course in Entrepreneurship and Innovation. My focus area is on financing of entrepreneurship. Building on the learnings from my thesis, I founded MTI Investment AS together with my supervisor, Professor Trond Randøy, and two fellow PhDs from Tanzania, Dr. Neema Mori and Dr. Gibson Munisi. It is my firm belief, that while financing microentrepreneurs in the informal economy do help people make more money, and also stay away from criminal activity, informal societies and developing countries need more small and medium sized businesses. We seem to be fixated with this romanticized idea that all people are entrepreneurs, but if we were to go back 100 years in time and look at Norway and Sweden from a distance – would we have suggested microfinance as the solution to get people out of poverty. While it is helpful, why shy away from financing the real job creators in an economy, the small and medium-sized firms.
The Norwegian newspaper Vårt Land writes in the Monday issue (October 17, 2016 p. 8-9) about my research in an article with the title “Therefore microfinance is not that effective” (Derfor er mikrofinans lite effektivt). While my findings do find that microfinance does add extra income to an individual´s business, it also shows that size can act as a counterbalancing factor such that income actually is reduced with increased sized. The economies of scale are in other words negative in the early phase of the firm. My research also points to the fact that growth in sales or assets does not seem to be related to taking on microloans. This is not controversial. What is obvious and perhaps more relevant from my research is that the level of financial literacy among poor microentrepreneurs is VERY low, and then one should take into account that the clients I surveyed were not the poorest of the poor, but merely poor. Little research is still however done in this area, and much more is needed. There is even research pointing towards the odd fact that those with more education actually do worse. This
Little research is still however done in this area, and much more is needed. There is even research finding in some informal economies that those with more education actually do worse (Honig, 1998). This is counterintuitive, and much more research is needed here. I am currently working on a paper which looks at the role of Financial Literacy, Role Models and how these two concepts affect firm performance in the informal economy. Research in the left tail of human capital among the poorest individuals on the planet is still in its infancy, but over time we will eventually learn how to effectively lift the human capital and sustain individuals in an improved economic state. The practical example of MTI Investments, and other pioneering firms, financing small and medium-sized firms, may be leading the way in this regard, where more investments are allocated towards small and medium sized firms, rather than mostly microenterprises today.
Translated from original article in norwegian found here.
This is revealed in the doctoral dissertation of Pontus Engström at the University of Agder (UiA).
– Microfinance provides a little more money in the wallet to the microentrepreneur, but they remain poor. Microfinance does not contribute to business growth or economic growth in society at large, says Engström.
He has just defended his doctoral dissertation on microfinance. Engström has followed 755 microentrepreneurs in Equador over a ten-year period. The findings show that, on average, the entrepreneurs make a little more money on their business, but not enough for the business to grow and fight poverty.
– The intention of micro-loans is to kick-start economic growth from scratch by giving small loans to poor people. Most small contractors want to grow, but that doesn’t happen. Microfinance does not help fight poverty as the scheme is used today, says Engström.
Engström shows in the doctoral dissertation that experience and general education mean little to the development of micro-entrepreneurs. What matters, on the other hand, is an understanding of basic financial concepts.
– Lack of growth in micro enterprises is often due to financial illiteracy of the business owner. The microentrepreneur is most concerned about getting money in his wallet from day to day and is not concerned about long-term value creation, says Engström.
He believes there is a need for more training in business and finance.
– The actors lack financial skills to grow and must be offered more education in business and finance. We must not stop supporting micro-enterprises, but most preferably we must invest in small and medium-sized enterprises with 10 to 300 employees. There are too few SMEs in poor countries, especially in Africa. The lack of such companies is called “the missing middle,” says Engström.
According to the World Bank, SMEs create four out of five jobs.
– We need to support the slightly larger companies, which have the power to hire people. There is no shortage of access to micro loans, but the loans must be given to the small and medium-sized businesses that have already grown and shown that they have a market position, says Engström.
Norway with a key role
Norway plays a key role when it comes to microfinance in the world. Norad, the Mission Alliance and the Strømme Foundation are among the Norwegian players involved in microfinance in poor countries, and in 2006 the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Muhammad Yunus.
– Microfinance became a hype when Muhammad Yunus received the Peace Prize, says Engström.
The Bangladeshi economist received the award for developing microfinance. Yunus believes that all people are potentially entrepreneurs, but that not everyone has access to resources. When he received the Peace Prize, Yunus said that microfinance would create a world without poverty, and that in the future we would go to museums to experience poverty and unemployment.
Criticism of microfinance
Engström was among those who liked the message from the business professor, but the Peace Prize gave a brief cheer in public space before criticism began. Both Yunus and microfinance were criticized for being too big in words and too strong in ambition.
– Critical journalists claim that microfinance led to more poverty. This was partially confirmed by other research showing that microfinance has no or very little effect on the economic development of poor countries, says Engström.
He believes the peace award to Yunus has helped reinforce a romanticized image that it is good that all people are entrepreneurs.
– We have to move away from the naive idea that everyone should be their own entrepreneur. 40 per cent of Uganda’s residents are entrepreneurs, while only 6-7 per cent of the population in the Nordic countries is. Everyone does not want to be entrepreneurs, many just want a job, says Engström.
Assistance with aid
Micro businesses have up to 10 employees, but often only 2-3 employees, including the one running the business.
– Microfinance as it is practiced today simply does not have the socially changing power of Yunus as such. Microfinance is too much of an aid issue. We need to stop thinking about assistance and start thinking about business. We must think about economic growth and development, as we do in the West. Short-term thinking prolongs poverty, says Engström.
– Does this mean that microfinance players today are extending poverty in the countries they operate in?
– Microfinance gives money to the individual, but it does not develop to a small extent.
The local knowledge players that the Strømme Foundation has built up are very important for being able to further develop microfinance. I have faith in the actors working on this, but the method itself is ripe for change, says Engström.
The poorest do not get a loan
Stromme Foundation has been operating with microfinance in poor countries for several years, and is aware that the financing scheme does not always work.
– Microfinance does not work when we talk about micro loans to the very poor, says Bjørn Stian Hellgren, head of Strømme Mikrofinans AS.
– Only when a borrower has a sustainable business plan, some productivity and some values in terms of products and production conditions will it make a positive contribution from a micro loan. Therefore, Stromme Foundation emphasizes that micro-loans should be linked with education and training. The borrower must have some prerequisites for us to provide micro loans, says Hellgren.
– Who gets micro loans from you?
– There are everything from small toy companies with 2-3 employees on the street in Uganda to companies with up to 10 employees.
– You have not considered changing the practice and lending to larger companies?
– So far we have not done so, but we are closely monitoring microfinance research and are constantly assessing what we can do to improve our microfinance, says Hellgren.
This interesting TED-talk by Diana Enriquez provides a nice introduction to what my PhD is about, the Informal Economy. In India, about 84% get their employment from the informal economy, that is a little bit more than 4 out of 5 jobs. The informal economy exists even in Europe, the US and other developing countries. The informal economy is everywhere, but a lot more in developing economies. Informal businesses are businesses which operate out of sight of government regulations, either completely or to some degree. My PhD looks at how finance and specific skills like financial literacy can enhance the micro businesses of the informal economy. Currently I am working on finishing the 3-4 papers which will be used in my PhD dissertation, with the intention to submit later this year. Cheers, Pontus